Programski jezik BASIC

Sredinom 60-ih  godina xx vijeka dva profesora iz SAD-a John Kemeny i Thomas Kurtz, razvili su programski jezik BASIC. Za BASIC se kaze da je programski jezik za pocetnike opce namjene. Vremenom se razvijao pa postoji veliki broj verzija razlicitih proizvodjaca. Kazemo da je za pocetnike jer je pogodan za one koji zeke savladati tehniku programiranja a kasnije je vrlo lahko bilo koji drugi programski jezik. Kod prvih kucnih  racunara BASIC je bio ugradjen u ROM memoriju dok operativni sistemi nisu jos bili razvijeni. Tada se pojavila kompanija Microsoft koja je ponudila svoju verziju BASIC-a, ali ta verzija se za razliku od predhodnih ucitavala u RAM memoriju racunara. Mnogi korisnici su se okrenuli BASIC-u i provodili sate i sate prekucavajuci iz magazina i knjiga programe pisane u BASIC-u. Medjutim vremenom su programeri postali sve nezadovoljniji sporoscu BASIC-a jer su programi interpretirani a ne kompajlirani pa su samim tim izvrsavani sporije. Drugi problem je bio taj sto BASIC nije bio pogodan za struktuiranuo programiranje. 80-ih godina proslog stoljeca kompanija Microsoft je pokusala rijesiti ove probleme objavivsi verziju QuichBASIC jezika koji je bio vise kompajlerski nego interpreterski. Ovaj program je baziran na operativnom sistemu DOS. Pojednostavljena verzija QuichBASIC-a je QBASIC. Moguca su dva nacina rada u BASIC-u: direktni ili indirektni nacin rada. QBASIC se pokrece sa dva klika na ikonicu programa QBASICA a zatim se pritisne tipka ESC da se ukloni pozdravni prozor. Otvoreni prozor se moze povecati tadko da se pritisne Alt+Enter. Menij koji mozemo pronaci u ovom prozoru su: File, Edit, View, Search, Run, Debug, Options. Mozemo ih otvoriti klikom misa ili Alt+odgovarajuce slovo. BASIC kao i drugi jezik ima svoj alfabet. Pomocu alfabeta BASIC-a mozemo napisati podatke, varijable, funkcije, naredbe… Tip podatka je skup vrijednosti koje imaju neke zajednicke osobine. Najcesca podjela tipova podataka, u vecini programskih jezika je jednostavni i slozeni. Podaci su znakovi kao sto su slova, brojevi i ostali simboli. Podatke bilo kojeg tipa mozemo podijeliti na: konstante i promjenljive. U BASIC-u cemo raditi sa numerickim i alfanumerickim podacima. Alfanumericki podaci pamte slova, rijeci, recenice, brojeve i ostale specijalne znakove. Sa njima ne mozemo racunati kao sa standardnim brojevima, ali ih mozemo spajati, dijeliti, uporedjivati i sl. Promjenljive su kao kutije u kojima cuvate podatke. Svaka od njih ima svoje ime i svoju vrijednost.

Programiranje

Oduvijek su se ljudi sporazumijevali na razlicite nacine. Jedan od nacinja sporazumijevanja je jezik, odnosno govor. U svijetu postoje hiljade jezika, pomocu kojih pripadnici razlicitih naroda komuniciraju. Ove jezike nazivamo govorni jezici. Mozemo reci da je jezik skup rijeci koje razumije skupina ljudi i popis odredjenih pravila koje ti ljudi postuju u svakodnevnom govoru. U radu sa racunarom, postavlja se pitanje kako racunaru saopstiti ono sta zelimo da uradimo. Naravno vec smo se upoznali sa cinjenicom da racunar jedino razumije jezik nula i jedinica, tako da za sada nije moguce komunicirati sa racunarom u nekom od govornih jezika (bosanski, engleski, njemacki…). Nedostatci govornih jezika su: nisu univerzalni i prepoznatljivi, cesto se neke stvari podrazumijevaju u govornom jeziku, a racunaru je neophodna preciznost, susrecemo dvosmislenosti, nenamjerno povezivanje vise jezika u jednom. Zbog svega navedenog, kreirani cu programski jezici. Oni koriste vlastiti ograniceni skup rijeci koje imaju posebno znacenje. Do danas je napravljeno hiljade programskih jezika. Ovi jezici su razumljivi racunaru, a sa druge strane i covjeku-programeru. Da bi smo upoznali neki jezik za programiranje, potrebno je da upoznamo: leksicku strukturu, sintaksu, semantiku jezika. Kao i hardverski dio racunara i softver je dozivio svoj razvoj kroz historiju. Za programske jezike kazemo da su u svom dosadasnjem razvoju prosli cetiri generacije. Programske jezike mozemo grupirati u pet glavnih kategorija: masinski jezik, asemblerski jezik, programski jezici visokog nivoa, programski jezici cetvrte generacije i objektno orijentisani jezici. Najcesce pisemo programe u jednim od visih programskih jezika, medjutim da bi racunar razumio program bilo je potrebno razviti posrednicke mehanizme koji obavljaju pretvaranje programskog jezika u masinski jeziki. Za to se koriste program prevodioci. Razlikujemo: kompajlere i interpretere. Kompajler je program koji prevodi izvorni program ili izvorni kod u masinski jezik samo jednom i to tokom prevodjenja. Interpreter je program prevodilac koji za razliku od kompajlera prevodi i odmah izvrsava svaku naredbu viseg programskog jezika. Postoji vise vrsta programskog jezika ali racunar jedino neposredno razumije masinski jezik.

How can i Decrease My own Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us with an entrepreneurial style look ahead to the afternoon that all of us can begin each of our own business. We may well possess excessive hopes for the future, convinced that we contain almost everything in line so that no danger is going to exist. The sad actuality is, however , many small businesses do not really survive more than five years in addition to a number of problems that can happen that may quite often have the ones businesses by simply surprise. Exactly what some of those challenges and what can be done in order to decrease them to a baseline in the event at most possible?

Probably one of the most common problems that can appear having a tiny business is the fact that they will are undercapitalized. The organization could expect to make $100, 000 annually in revenue but they may go down a small bit short in the first few years. In the event they do certainly not have sufficient capital obtainable by the start off, they will rapidly go out of loan and they will end up filing individual bankruptcy. This kind of is typically the conclusion of the up-and-coming spirit that had started out a person in a new company. Of course, you can use it as a stepping rock to begin with a new organization and to make sure that you own all kinds of things in line right away.

Another concern that can easily be bad for a new organization that is go out of the household is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you will be going to should have your individual health and wellbeing insurance for you and your family and you should likely desire liability insurance as good. The cost in most parts of the world are substantial and when you add in the very fact that you will be compensating taxes and forking over for some other business bills, it can genuinely slashed down in your gains. Make sure that you speak to a los angeles accountant in move forward of starting a organization so you understand clearly exactly where you has to be to work your business efficiently.

You can also find circumstances when standard difficulty along with your business that may require conditions San Francisco organization lawyer. No matter whether you will be hiring a S . fransisco intellectual real estate lawyer or perhaps if you are selecting somebody that is going to help you with owning a negative employee, it can important for you to choose your attorney in advance. That may provide you the chance to experience them available so that you can not need to be making for you to decide at the last minute. Help to make sure that you choose somebody that is normally comfortable which will take on care of a number of assignments so that you do not will need to run from one lawyer to another.
One other issue that you may have is seeking the job force that you desire. This might seem to be bizarre, specifically looking at the economical conditions in the world today but there is also a significant big difference between employing somebody and employing a person that is going to be qualified to do the task. Make certain you find workers that are willing to go the extra mile and this are interested in featuring quality meet your needs exactly and the consumers.

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How can you Decrease My own Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial style look ahead to the day that all of us may start our own organization. We could have got great desires for the future, convinced that we possess anything in line to ensure that no trouble is going to can be found. The regrettable simple fact is, yet , many small business owners do certainly not survive even more than five years in addition to a amount of problems that can arise that can generally have those entrepreneurs simply by surprise. Exactly what are some of those challenges and what can be done in order to decrease them to the very least any time at almost all possible?

Perhaps one of the most common problems that can arise having a small business is the fact that they are undercapitalized. The business may possibly expect to make $100, 1000 annually in revenue nevertheless they may get a minor bit short in the early years. Any time they will do not really have sufficient capital readily available by the commence, they may shortly become depleted of backing and they will definitely end up declaring individual bankruptcy. This is often the finish of the entrepreneurial spirit that had started out a person in a start up business. Of course, it can be used as a pressing stone to begin with a new business and to make sure that you own almost everything in line in the first place.

Another issue that may be detrimental to a fresh organization that is become depleted of your home is insurance. When you are self-employed, you happen to be going to have to have your private health and wellness insurance to suit your needs and the family and you should likely need to have liability insurance as good. The insurance expense in many parts of the world are astronomical and when you add found in the very fact that you happen to be spending money on taxation and compensating for any other business expenditures, it may genuinely trim down in your gains. Make sure that you speak to an accountant los angeles in improvement of beginning a organization in order that you appreciate obviously in which you should be to manage your business successfully.

You will also find conditions when you will have a difficulty with the business which will require the use of a San Francisco organization lawyer. Whether or not you will be selecting a S . fransisco intellectual building lawyer or perhaps if you are employing somebody that can help you with managing a disgruntled worker, they have important for you to choose your lawyer in move forward. Which will offer you the opportunity to own them obtainable so that you will not have to come to be making your decision at the last second. Produce sure that you select somebody that is going to be pleasant and that will have care of an array of jobs so that you do not need to work from 1 lawyer to another.
Another issue that you may have is picking out the function force that you desire. This may well appear different, specifically taking into consideration the economic conditions in the world today but there exists a significant big difference between selecting someone and selecting an individual that is usually qualified to complete the job. Ensure that you find personnel that are willing to go the extra mile and this are interested in offering quality work for you and the clientele.

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How can i Decrease My own Risk Within a Business Environment

Many of us with an entrepreneurial spirit look forward to the day that we may start each of our own business. We may contain great desires for the future, convinced that we have all the things in line in order that no danger is going to can be found. The regrettable reality is, however , many small businesses do not really make it through even more than five years in addition to a number of issues that can happen that will typically have all those business owners by simply surprise. Exactly what some of those concerns and what you can do in purchase to reduce them to at least any time at all possible?

Perhaps one of the most common conditions that can happen which has a tiny business is the fact that that they are undercapitalized. The business might expect to produce $100, 000 annually on revenue nevertheless they may go down a bit of bit short in the first few years. Whenever they will do not really have enough capital available via the start, they may rapidly become depleted of loans and they will definitely conclude declaring bankruptcy. This is sometimes the finish of the gumptiouspioneering, up-and-coming spirit that had started a person in a start up business. Of course, it can be used as a going natural stone to start with a new business and to make sure that you include every thing in line from the beginning.

Another issue that can be bad for a new organization that is run out of your home is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you will be going to need to have your personal well-being insurance to suit your needs and the family and you may likely want liability insurance as good. The insurance expense in lots of parts of the world are astronomical and when you add found in the fact that you will be spending money on taxes and paying for some other business bills, it can seriously slashed down in your revenue. Make certain you speak to a los angeles accountant in improve of beginning a organization so that you will understand clearly in which you should be to manage your company successfully.

Additionally, there are conditions when you will find a difficulty using your business that could require conditions San Francisco business lawyer. No matter whether you are hiring a San Francisco intellectual house lawyer or if you are selecting somebody that should support you with owning a disgruntled worker, it’s important to decide your legal professional in advance. That could give you the opportunity to experience them readily available so that you can not need to get making for you to decide at the last minute. Generate sure that you choose somebody that is undoubtedly cozy and that will have care of several projects in order that you conduct not require to work from one legal professional to another.
Another issue that you may have is finding the job force that are needed. This could seem to be out of the ordinary, especially looking at the monetary conditions today but there exists a significant difference between hiring an individual and hiring an individual that is qualified to try the work. Make certain you find employees that are happy to go the extra mile which are interested in providing quality meet your needs and your clientele.

For additional information read below

financetipss.com

How can i Decrease My own Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial spirit look ahead to the afternoon that we all can begin each of our own business. We may possibly include superior hopes for the future, thinking that we possess almost everything in line to ensure that no danger is going to can be found. The unfortunate truth is, yet , many small businesses do not endure more than five years and a number of problems that can take place which will typically take all those businesses simply by surprise. Precisely what are some of those complications and what can be done in order to reduce them to a minimum in the event at all possible?

Perhaps one of the most common problems that can appear which has a little business is the fact that that that they are undercapitalized. The business may well expect to produce $100, 000 annually in revenue however they may go down a minor bit short in the starting years. In the event they do not really have enough capital obtainable right from the start, they are going to before long be depleted of funding and they can conclude declaring individual bankruptcy. This is generally the finale of the pioneeringup-and-coming spirit that had started out a person in a new business. Of course, it can be used as a stepping rock to start a new organization and to make sure you possess all kinds of things in line from the beginning.

Another issue that can be detrimental to a fresh organization that is run out of the home is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you will be going to have to have your private wellbeing insurance for you and your family and you will likely will want liability insurance as good. The price in lots of parts of the earth are astronomical and when you add in the simple fact that you happen to be having to pay taxation and paying for some other business expenditures, it may actually cut down about the revenue. Make certain you discuss to a los angeles accountant in enhance of starting a organization so you understand plainly wherever you should be to work your business efficiently.

Additionally , there are moments when you will find a difficulty with all your business that may require conditions San Francisco business lawyer. Irrespective of whether you will be selecting a S . fransisco intellectual property lawyer or if you are hiring somebody that will help you with owning an unhappy worker, it’s important for you to choose your lawyer in advance. That could offer you the chance to currently have them readily available so that you can not have to end up being making for you to decide at the last minute. Produce sure that you select somebody that is more comfortable and that will have care of a wide variety of jobs so that you will conduct not will need to run from 1 attorney to another.
Another issue that you may have is picking out the function force that you require. This may well seem different, specifically looking at the economical conditions in the world today but we have a significant big difference between hiring someone and hiring a person that is going to be qualified to accomplish the work. Make certain you discover staff members that are ready to go the extra mile and that are interested in offering quality do the job and your customers.

For more info read below

duhocbridge.com

How can you Decrease My Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial nature look ahead to your day that we all can start each of our own organization. We might have increased desires for the future, thinking that we have all in line so that no trouble is going to exist. The regrettable certainty is, nevertheless , many small businesses do certainly not endure more than five years and there are a amount of issues that can appear which will often have the ones companies by surprise. Exactly what are some of those challenges and what you can do in purchase to lessen them to at least whenever at every possible?

Perhaps one of the most common problems that can happen using a tiny business is the fact that that that they are undercapitalized. The organization may possibly anticipate to produce $100, 1000 annually on revenue nevertheless they may go a minor bit short in the starting years. If perhaps they do not have enough capital obtainable right from the start off, they are going to rapidly be used up of backing and they will certainly conclude proclaiming individual bankruptcy. This kind of is quite often the finish of the entrepreneurial spirit that had began a person in a new company. Of course, you can use it as a treading rock to begin with a new business and to make sure that you have anything in line right away.

Another concern that can be detrimental to a fresh organization that is run out of your home is insurance. When you are self-employed, you happen to be going to really need the very own well-being insurance suitable for you and your family and you will likely want liability insurance as well. The insurance cost in most parts of the earth are substantial and when you add in the simple fact that you are forking over income taxes and spending money on for any other business bills, it can easily really cut down on your income. Make sure that you talk to an accountant in boost of starting a business so that you will understand clearly where you has to be to work your business efficiently.

In addition there are times when standard difficulty with all your business that will require conditions San Francisco business lawyer. Irrespective of whether you are employing a Bay area intellectual real estate lawyer or perhaps if you are hiring somebody that is likely to support you with managing a dissatisfied employee, they have important to decide your attorney in move forward. That may offer you the possibility to own them offered so that you will not have to come to be making for you to decide at the last second. Make sure that you choose somebody that is certainly comfortable and that will take care of a multitude of jobs in order that you carry out not require to manage from one particular lawyer to another.
One other issue that you may have is searching out the operate force that you need. This may possibly seem to be unusual, especially looking at the economical conditions nowadays but there is a significant difference among employing a person and selecting somebody that is definitely qualified to complete the task. Ensure that you locate employees that are happy to go the extra mile which are interested in providing quality work for you and your consumers.

For more information read here

businesspromoteaustralia.com

Just how do i Decrease My Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial heart look forwards to from that all of us can begin each of our own organization. We could own superior desires for the future, convinced that we own anything in line in order that no danger is going to are present. The regrettable certainty is, yet , many smaller businesses do not endure even more than five years and a quantity of problems that can take place that may often take some of those business owners simply by surprise. Precisely what are some of those challenges and what can be done in buy to lessen them to the very least if perhaps at all of the possible?

Perhaps one of the most common problems that can appear which has a tiny business is the fact that that they will are undercapitalized. The business may possibly expect to generate $100, 500 annually in revenue however they may fit a minor bit brief in the first few years. In cases where that they do not really have sufficient capital obtainable out of the commence, they may soon go out of financing and they can end up filing personal bankruptcy. This is frequently the completed of the gumptiouspioneering, up-and-coming spirit that had started out a person in a new company. Of course, you can use it as a going natural stone to start with a new organization and to make sure you have got all kinds of things in line from the beginning.

Another concern that can be detrimental to a new organization that is be used up of your household is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you are going to must contain your private healthiness insurance for yourself and the family and you will likely need to have liability insurance as good. The insurance expense in many parts of the earth are gargantuan and when you add found in the truth that you happen to be forking over taxation and paying for some other business bills, it can easily seriously trim down on your income. Ensure that you talk to an accountant los angeles in loan of starting a business so that you will appreciate obviously where you must be to work your business efficiently.

Additionally , there are times when standard difficulty with all your business that could require the use of a San Francisco business legal professional. Whether or not you happen to be employing a San Francisco intellectual building lawyer or perhaps if you are employing somebody that would help you with owning an unhappy worker, really important for you to choose your lawyer in advance. That will give you the opportunity to experience them readily available so that you might not have to get making for you to decide at the last second. Help to make sure that you select somebody that is definitely relaxed and that will take on care of a multitude of jobs so that you conduct not will need to run from one particular legal professional to another.
One other issue that you may have is searching out the operate force that you require. This could seem to be odd, specifically looking at the monetary conditions today but there exists a significant big difference between hiring somebody and hiring a person that is without question qualified to accomplish the job. Ensure that you locate workers that are happy to go the extra mile and this are interested in offering quality meet your needs exactly and the clients.

For additional information read in this article

financetipss.com

How Do I Decrease My personal Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial style look forward to your day that we can start our own organization. We could contain high hopes for the future, convinced that we currently have anything in line in order that no problems are going to can be found. The regrettable actuality is, yet , many small enterprises do not make it through even more than five years in addition to a quantity of issues that can take place that will typically consider some of those companies by surprise. Precisely what are some of those concerns and what you can do in order to lessen them to at least if at almost all possible?

Probably one of the most common conditions that can happen with a tiny business is the fact that they will are undercapitalized. The business might expect to make $100, 000 annually in revenue nonetheless they may trip a minor bit brief in the starting years. Whenever they will do not really have enough capital available out of the start, they will shortly become depleted of loans and they will definitely end up proclaiming individual bankruptcy. This kind of is frequently the final of the gumptiouspioneering, up-and-coming spirit that had started a person in a start up business. Of course, it can be used as a going stone to start a new organization and to make sure you experience all kinds of things in line in the first place.

Another concern that can easily be bad for a new business that is go out of the home is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you happen to be going to have to have the individual health and wellbeing insurance for you personally and your family and you may likely desire liability insurance as good. The insurance price in a great many parts of the earth are gargantuan and when you add found in the actual fact that you happen to be paying property taxes and forking over for any other business bills, it can really trim down on your profits. Make sure that you speak to a los angeles accountant in advancement of starting a organization in order that you understand clearly in which you should be to run your company efficiently.

Additionally there are occasions when you will have a difficulty together with your business that will require conditions San Francisco business attorney. Irrespective of whether you happen to be employing a S . fransisco intellectual asset lawyer or if you are selecting somebody that is likely to support you with owning a dissatisfied staff, it can important for you to choose your attorney in progress. That will provide you the possibility to experience them obtainable so that you will not need to be making your decision at the very last minute. Produce sure that you choose somebody that can be relaxed and that will take care of a multitude of projects so that you carry out not need to operate from one legal professional to another.
Another issue that you may have is choosing the do the job force need. This may appear odd, specifically considering the economical conditions in the world today but there is a significant difference among hiring a person and employing someone that is without question qualified you need to do the work. Ensure that you discover personnel that are happy to go the extra mile and that are interested in offering quality work for you and your customers.

To learn more read in this article

financetipss.com

How Do I Decrease My own Risk In a Business Environment

Many of us that have an entrepreneurial mood look forwards to the morning that we all can start each of our own organization. We may well have substantial hopes for the future, thinking that we own all sorts of things in line to ensure that no problems are going to exist. The regrettable truth is, however , many small businesses do not really endure more than five years and there are a number of problems that can occur that can often consider individuals company owners by simply surprise. Precisely what are some of those complications and what can be done in buy to reduce them to at least if at each and every one possible?

Probably one of the most common issues that can take place having a small business is the fact that that they are undercapitalized. The organization could expect to make $100, 000 annually on revenue nevertheless they may fall a bit of bit short in the starting years. If they will do not have enough capital available by the start off, they may subsequently become depleted of investment and they will definitely wrap up declaring bankruptcy. This is sometimes the conclusion of the enterprisinggo-getting, gumptious, pioneering, up-and-coming spirit that had started out a person in a new company. Of course, it can be used as a moving natural stone to begin with a new business and to make certain you include anything in line in the first place.

Another concern that may be detrimental to a fresh business that is be depleted of your home is insurance. When you are a sole proprietor, you are going to want the private wellness insurance available for you and your family and you may likely need to have liability insurance as good. The expense in most parts of the earth are gargantuan and when you add found in the very fact that you happen to be paying out duty and compensating for any other business expenses, it can seriously cut down on the profits. Ensure that you speak to a los angeles accountant in advancement of beginning a business so you appreciate obviously exactly where you should be to run your company effectively.

Additionally there are moments when you will have a difficulty using your business that could require conditions San Francisco business attorney. No matter whether you will be selecting a San Francisco intellectual property or home lawyer or if you are hiring somebody that will almost certainly help you with owning a dissatisfied employee, it has the important to decide your lawyer in move forward. Which will give you the opportunity to possess them obtainable so that you might not need to get making your decision at the very last minute. Produce sure that you choose somebody that can be pleasant and that will have care of many jobs in order that you do not need to operate from one attorney to another.
Another issue that you may have is finding the operate force that you need. This could appear unconventional, especially looking at the financial conditions these days but there is a significant big difference between employing someone and hiring somebody that is undoubtedly qualified for you to do the task. Make certain you discover workers that are ready to go the extra mile which are interested in rendering quality meet your needs exactly and the clientele.

To acquire more information read right here

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